Face-to-Face Communication in Organizations

The international response to the COVID-19 pandemic has emphasised working from home, especially for office workers tasked with the generation and processing of information. Compliance has generally been very high, with most companies not just encouraging, but mandating, their employees to work from home. This has led to an emptying of city centres and financial […]

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Moral Values and Voting

What roles do moral values play in election outcomes? What are the key moral frameworks that voters maintain? How do politicians appeal to these different moral frameworks? This article summarizes a recent research paper which examines these questions, by introducing a core aspect of modern moral psychology into the study of political economy. Universalist versus […]

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Geography, transportation, and endogenous trade costs

Whether by sea, land, or air, trade functions through the transportation sector. Transportation is therefore central to everyday life. Surprisingly little is known, however, about how the market for transportation services interacts with the global market for goods. Recently, the delays in trade costing billions caused by both the blockage of the Suez Canal by […]

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Second chance: the social benefits of diversion in the criminal justice system

Public officials are increasingly diverting people from the criminal justice system, usually to help them to avoid a criminal record and its associated consequences. The practice has become an important part of recent efforts to reform criminal justice policy, and it often enables corrections systems to conserve scarce resources. Despite the growing popularity of criminal […]

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What Goes Up May Not Come Down: Asymmetric Incidence of Value-Added Taxes

Evidence from Finland indicates that prices, and profits, respond more strongly to a VAT increase than a VAT decrease—and that short-term policy changes can have longer-term effects Our analysis relies on two main approaches. First, we analyze the effect of a large VAT decrease in the hairdressing sector in Finland, which was later reversed. This […]

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Age of marriage, weather shocks, and the direction of marriage payments

Child marriage, defined as marriage before the age of 18, is a widespread phenomenon in many parts of the world. About half of all prime-aged women living today in South Asia and in Sub-Saharan Africa were married as children (UNICEF 2014). Child marriage has been associated with a wide array of poor economic, social, and […]

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Innovation in the global firm

Multinational corporations are among the most innovative firms – and they account for the majority of the investment in innovation made around the world. Yet compared with the fragmentation of multinationals’ production across countries, investment in innovation by these firms is typically concentrated in one ‘headquarters’ country.  The potential geographical mismatch between where knowledge is […]

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More Precise Regulation can Lower Pollution in India

Today’s large developing countries have perhaps the highest levels of air pollution recorded in human history. The World Health Organization (WHO) sets an air quality standard of 10 micrograms per cubic meter for fine particles, PM2.5. In the United States, air pollution is worse than the WHO standard in 73 counties, home to 36 million […]

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How acquisitions affect firm behavior and performance: Evidence from the dialysis industry

Health care markets have become increasingly concentrated through mergers and acquisitions. Proponents of this consolidation cite several potential benefits, including lower costs due to economies of scale and better patient outcomes through coordinated care. Greater concentration may also result in higher prices or lower quality, however. In a recent paper, funded in part by a […]

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The Return to Protectionism

After more than a half-century of leading efforts to lower international trade barriers, the United States enacted several waves of tariff increases on specific products and countries in 2018 and 2019. Overall, the U.S. implemented tariffs on 17.6% of its 2017 imports, primarily from China, raising tariffs on targeted imports from an average of 3.7% […]

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